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Ankle and Foot

Ankle Sprain

Ankle sprains are some of the most common sports injuries, often recurring again and again. In most cases the ankle is rolled outwards, resulting in damage to the lateral ligaments. This is known as an inversion sprain.

Signs and symptoms of a sprained ankle include:

  • Pain, especially when you bear weight on the affected foot

  • Swelling and, sometimes, bruising

  • Restricted range of motion

  • Some people hear or feel a "pop" at the time of injury.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a painful inflammatory process of the plantar fascia, the connective tissue on the sole (bottom surface) of the foot. It is often caused by overuse of the plantar fascia or arch tendon of the foot. It is a very common condition and can be difficult to treat if not looked after properly. Another common term for the affliction is "policeman's heel".

In most cases, the pain associated with plantar fasciitis:

  • Develops gradually

  • Affects just one foot, although it can occur in both feet at the same time

  • Is triggered by — and is worst with — the first few steps after awakening, although it can also be triggered by long periods of standing or getting up from a seated position

  • Feels like a stab in the heel of your foot

Calcaneal Spur

calcaneal spur (or heel spur) is a small osteophyte (bone spur) located on the calcaneus (heel bone). Calcaneal spurs are typically detected by a radiological examination.


Heel spurs often cause no symptoms. But heel spurs can be associated with intermittent or chronic pain -- especially while walking, jogging, or running -- if inflammation develops at the point of the spur formation. In general, the cause of the pain is not the heel spur itself but the soft-tissue injury associated with it.

Many people describe the pain of heel spurs and plantar fasciitis as a knife or pin sticking into the bottom of their feet when they first stand up in the morning -- a pain that later turns into a dull ache. They often complain that the sharp pain returns after they stand up after sitting for a prolonged period of time.

Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles Tendonitis or achilles tendinitis as it is sometimes spelt is an overuse injury of the achilles tendon. The achilles is the thick, strong tendon at the back of the ankle. It causes pain and stiffness at the back of the ankle and can be difficult to cure.

The pain associated with Achilles tendinitis typically begins as a mild ache in the back of the leg or above the heel after running or other sports activity. Episodes of more severe pain may occur after prolonged running, stair climbing or sprinting.

You might also experience tenderness or stiffness, especially in the morning, which usually improves with mild activity.



A hallux abducto valgus deformity, commonly called a bunion, is a deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe, often erroneously described as an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the head of the big toe.

The signs and symptoms of a bunion include:

  • A bulging bump on the outside of the base of your big toe

  • Swelling, redness or soreness around your big toe joint

  • Thickening of the skin at the base of your big toe

  • Corns or calluses — these often develop where the first and second toes overlap

  • Persistent or intermittent pain

  • Restricted movement of your big toe

Pain from a bunion can be severe enough to keep you from walking comfortably in normal shoes. The skin and deeper tissue around the bunion also may become swollen or inflamed.

By pushing your big toe inward, a bunion can squeeze your other toes into abnormal positions. Over time, this crowding molds the four toes into the bent or claw-like shape known as hammertoe.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

A DVT is a blood clot in a vein. These are most common in the legs, especially after long haul flights. Symptoms include constant calf pain, tenderness at a deep point in the muscle and swelling may be present. It is important not to mis-diagnose this condition as a calf strain injury.

In about half of all cases, deep vein thrombosis occurs without any noticeable symptoms.

When deep vein thrombosis symptoms occur, they can include:

  • Swelling in the affected leg, including swelling in your ankle and foot.

  • Pain in your leg; this can include pain in your ankle and foot. The pain often starts in your calf and can feel like cramping or a charley horse.

  • Warmth over the affected area.

  • Changes in your skin color, such as turning pale, red or blue.

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