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ACL And PCL Injury

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and the PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) are the two major ligaments in the knee that work together to provide stability in the knee. They cross each other and form an 'X' which allows the knee to flex and extend without side to side movement.

Symptoms of a knee ligament injury are:

  • Pain, often sudden and severe

  • A loud pop or snap during the injury

  • Swelling

  • A feeling of looseness in the joint

  • Inability to put weight on the point without pain

LCL And MCL Injury

Medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) provide restraint to valgus and varus angulation of the knee, respectively. The MCL has superficial and deep components and The LCL is part of a complex of ligaments collectively named the posterolateral corner.


  • Pain at the sides of your knee. If there is an MCL injury, the pain is on the inside of the knee; an LCL injury may cause pain on the outside of the knee.

  • Swelling over the site of the injury.

  • Instability — the feeling that your knee is giving way.

Meniscus Injury

Meniscus tears are sometimes related to trauma, but significant trauma is not necessary. A sudden twist or repeated squatting can tear the meniscus. The timing of the injury is important to note, although patients often cannot describe a specific event.

Symptoms of a meniscus tear include:

  • Pain in the knee.

  • Swelling.

  • A popping sensation during the injury.

  • Difficulty bending and straightening the leg,

  • A tendency for your knee to get "stuck" or lock up.

At first, the pain may not be bad. You might even play through the injury. But once the inflammation sets in, your knee will probably hurt quite a bit.

Patellofemoral Joint Syndrome

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) also known as runners knee is a generic term used to describe pain at the front of the knee which comes on gradually with symptoms increasing over a period of time.


The first symptom is pain around or under the kneecap. The pain may first occur during high impact activities. This includes playing sports or going down stairs. As the condition gets worse, the pain may be triggered by long periods of sitting. It is thought to be caused by the pressure on the knee cap while the leg is flexed. Other symptoms include:

  • Swelling around the knee

  • Popping or gridding sounds in the knee joint during activity

  • A snapping sensation in the knee

Articular Cartilage Injury

Articular cartilage injury is damage to the tough cartilage that lines the ends of bones. We explain the symptoms, causes and treatment of an articular cartilage injury to the knee.


  • Recurrent pain and swelling in the knee joint

  • Aching pain after activity or rest

  • Feeling of roughness and locking inside the knee joint (crepitation). Knee movements may be associated with audible ‘clunks’ or clicks.

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